Monday, 4 November 2013

Sulu Sultanate from US Perspective

The Sulu Archipelago is a series of small volcanic islands which extends in a northeast and southwest direction between the meridians of 119° 10′ and 122° 25′ east, and the parallels of 4° 30′ and 6° 50′ north. It forms a continuous chain of islands, islets, and coral reefs, which connects the peninsula of Zamboanga with the northeastern extremity of Borneo and separates the Sulu Sea from the Celebes Sea. It marks the southern line of communication between the Philippine Islands and Borneo and is probably the chief route of former emigrations and travel from Borneo to Mindanao and the southern Bisayan Islands.
While the Sulu Sultanate is commonly regarded as an integral portion of the Philippine Archipelago, it was, historically, politically and internationally, a different territory. In fact the differences are even deeper, the Sulu peoples being ethnologically distinct from the varying types of the Philippine Islands, and their religious faith and governmental systems being those of the Semitic lands, and not of the Malay and Polynesian Islands. Politically the sultanate includes a large fief in British North Borneo, just below Sandakan, the islands ranging from Sibutu and Tawi Tawi, lying east of Cape Unsang on the Borneo coast, to the Province of Zamboanga, on the Island of Mindanao. It also included a fief known as the Sultanate of Buhaten, in the Provinces of Cotta Batto and Mindanao, upon the Island of Mindanao, and several smaller fiefs in the Provinces of Sibuguey and Samis. The leading islands of the sultanate are Sulu, Basilan, Tawi Tawi, Tapul, Pata, Siassi, Pangutarang, Bilatan, Mantabuan, Olutanga, Minao, Simisa, Lugus and Lapac.
The most reliable of the pre-Mahommedan traditional histories of Sulu states that the first civilized foreigners to establish a settlement in that island were the Orang Dampuan. The time of the original settlement of the Orang Dampuan in Sulu is very uncertain, but was probably between the ninth and twelfth centuries, AD, though Chinese or Arab ships are said to have traded there at an even earlier date. The Orang Dampuan built several towns and made other improvements, but were regarded with jealousy by the native inhabitants. Finally, some of the foreigners were treacherously killed, and a bitter war ensued; the result was that after killing as many as they could of the native inhabitants, the Orang Dampuan burned their towns and withdrew from the island. Thus the meager Sulu tradition. Considering that d and ch are interchangeable in a number of Philippine dialects, it seems quite possible that the Orang Dampuan were merely “Men of Champa”, and that their main purpose in Sulu was the establishing of a trading station.
Later, after the island had come under the dominion of Sri-Vishaya, Champa ships came again to Sulu. That they continued to trade there is substantiated by the claim in an early Sulu manuscript that in the century before the arrival of the Spaniards from four hundred to five hundred junks arrived annually from Cambodia, Champa and China, with which Sulu principally traded. At that time the island is said to have been very densely populated and to have been one of the great trade centers of the Archipelago.
The Sulu traditional history is very specific with regard to Bandjarmasin. The data which it contains may be summarized as follows: The fame of the richness of the pearl-beds and other resources of Sulu had already reached southern Borneo, probably through the agency of Chinese or Champa traders. The Orang Bandjar began to visit and trade with Sulu and soon sent a colony there. After a period of somewhat precarious relations between the colonists and the native inhabitants, called Bur&nun and said to have been very dark in color, temporary peace was assured by bringing from Bandjarmasin a princess of great beauty, who was married to the principal chief. The treaty of marriage made Sulu tributary to the Bandjarmasin empire, or more probably to Sri-Vishaya through Bandjarmasin, and secured to the colonists a permanent foothold for peaceful expansion and development.
They were not slow to take advantage of this, and the coastal regions of the Sulu Archipelago were soon filled with a motley population derived from the surrounding islands — probably chiefly from Borneo, Celebes and Mindanao, though Sumatra, Java, the Moluccas and even Indo-China may have contributed elements. The native inhabitants were gradually displaced, except in the interior of Sulu and the other larger islands, and the coasts came to be wholly dominated by the foreigners. The coast Sulus still speak of the people of the interior with contempt as Gimbah&nun, “Hillmen”. Sulu became a great trade center, and its harbors were frequented by ships from China, Cambodia, Sumatra, Java and possibly even India and Arabia. The rulers, or rajas, of Sulu were descended from the alliance of the Bandjarmasin princess with the native Sulu chief, and they remained tributary to Bandjarmasin and wholly under its cultural influence for a long period.
The three localities in the Philippines which are definitely known to have been controlled by Madjapahit were Sulu, the region of Lake Lanao in Mindanao, and the vicinity of Manila Bay in Luzon; these are the places mentioned in the list of tributary states. Though not mentioned in any records known to the writer, it is probable that there were also Javan colonies in the Pulangi and Agusan river valleys in Mindanao, in Palawan, Mindoro and possibly several of the Visayan islands. The best evidence of this lies in the strong element of Hindu culture still to be found in those places.
The “Islamic Empire of Sulu” arose in 1401, achieved its highest glory towards 1675, and survived until 1919. The Muslim Arabian scholar Abu Bakr ar-rived in 1450, married Baguinda’s daughter, and after Baguinda’s death, became sultan, thereby introducing the sultanate as a political system. Political districts were created in Parang, Pansul, Lati, Gitung, and Lu-uk, each -headed by a panglima or district leader. After Abu Bakr’s death, the sultanate system had already become well established in Sulu. Before the coming of the Spaniards, the ethnic groups in Sulu-the Tausug, Samal, Yakan, and Badjao-were in varying degrees united under the Sulu sultanate, considered the most centralized -political system in the Philippines.
By 1500 Islam was established throughout Sulu, and with no central government to resist the northward push of the sultans, Islam easily spread, and reached Manila by 1565. Islam was easily integrated into the islands’ societies as the indigenous peoples were divided into barangays (group based upon kinship), and Muslims brought with them an organized political concept of territorial states ruled by rajas or sultans. The Sultanate of Sulu extended its powers over Basilan, Palawan, and some coastal settlements in Zamboanga and North Borneo. The Sultanate of Maguindanao extended its influence over Mindanao.
They were the Ishmaelites of the East Indies. They were at war with every neighboring community. As pirates they viewed all flags as their proper prey, and as fanatical followers of Mohammed they took an especial delight in killing Spaniards. There was war between Spain and the sultanate from the advent of Legaspi up to the present year, and although the Sulus have been crushed by the pressure of civilization so that they are but a shadow of their former selves, they were nevertheless a constant menace to the Spanish government in the Philippines.
The name of Moro, given to the Sulu by the Spaniard, is a fair example of Castilian carelessness or ignorance. Just as they insisted upon calling the Antilles the West Indies, andredmen, Indians, even after they found that they had made a mistake, and that they had not discovered India and the Indians by going west, so when they encountered the Moslem Malays of Sulu they said, these are the Moors we drove out of Spain in the fifteenth century, and even after they had learned the full nature of their error, they still clung to the appellations they had bestowed.
The Sulu, or Moro, as the Spaniards called him, was about as intolerant as an Afghan. He believed in the most sanguinary teachings of Islam and took a pleasure in dying in an attack upon infidels. It was among the Moros that the juramentados, or oath-bound assassins, were found. They were usually young men of a high morality, measured by Moslem standards, who deliberately dedicated themselves to destruction. They went into training — religious, athletic and military — to prepare themselves for the culminating exploit of life, and when ready for the ordeal oiled their bodies, discarding all clothing, and with a weapon in either hand plunged into a Christian community, killing or wounding until they are dispatched by their foes.
With the arrival of the Spaniards came successive expeditions to conquer the Muslim groups in the south. Called the “Moro Wars,” these battles were waged intermittently from 1578 till 1898 between the Spanish colonial government and the Muslims of Mindanao. In 1578 an expedition sent by Gov Francisco de Sande and headed by Capt Rodriguez de Figueroa began the 300-year warfare between the Tausug and the Spanish authorities. In 1579 the Spanish government gave de Figueroa the sole right to colonize Mindanao. He was killed in an ambush, and his troops retreated to an anchorage near Zamboanga. In retaliation, the Muslims raided Visayan towns in Panay, Negros, and Cebu. These were repulsed by Spanish and Visayan forces.
In the early 17th century, the largest alliance composed of the Maranao, Maguindanao, Tausug, other Muslim groups was formed by Sultan Kudarat or Cachil Corralat of Maguindanao, whose domain extended from the Davao Gulf to Dapitan on the Zamboanga peninsula. Several expeditions sent by the Spanish authorities suffered defeat. In 1635 Capt Juan de Chaves occupied Zamboanga and erected a fort. This led to the defeat of Kudarat’s feared admiral, Datu Tagal, who had raided pueblos in the Visayas. In 1637, Gov Gen Hurtado de Corcuera personally led an expedition against Kudarat, and triumphed over his forces at Lamitan and Ilian. On 1 Jan 1638, de Corcuera with 80 vessels and 2000 soldiers, defeated the Tausug and occupied Jolo. A peace treaty was forged. The victory did not establish Spanish sovereignty over Sulu, as the Tausug abrogated the treaty as soon Spaniards left in 1646. In 1737 Sultan Alimud Din I entered into a “perma-nent” peace treaty with Gov Gen F. Valdes y Tamon; and in 1746, befriended the Jesuits sent to Jolo by King Philip V.
In 1748 he was forcibly removed by the forces of Bantilan, son of an earlier sultan. Alimud Din was charged as being “too friendly” with the Christians, whereupon he left for Manila in 1749. He was received well by Gov Gen Arrechderra and was baptized on 29 Apr 1750. He was humiliated in 1753, when after being reinstated as sultan, he was arrested on his way back to Sulu, under the orders of Gov Gen Zacarias. The Tausug retaliated by raiding northern coasts. In 1763 he was released by the British forces which had occupied Manila. He returned to Sulu as sultan, and in 1769, ordered the invasion of Manila Bay.
As late as 1851 their war prahus attacked and captured ships in Manila harbor, and made descents upon the towns and villages. The first great blow at the Sulu supremacy was delivered by the united navies of the civilized world, led by the gunboats of Great Britain. In the days of sailing frigates and corvettes the Sulus in their swift prahus nearly always managed to escape when on the open sea, and when prowling among the shoals and islets of the Philippine waters they were perfectly safe from the heavier and deeper ships of Europe and the United States. The introduction of steam soon showed them that their supremacy upon the high seas was gone forever. The Sulu sultanate declined after piracy was effectively halted, and in 1851, Gen Urbiztondo led an expedition that defeated the Tausug.
For many years the claim of Spain to sovereignty over the territories of Sulu had never been admitted by Great Britain and Germany, and the interference of the Spanish authorities with the freedom of trade in the Sulu Archipelago formed the subject of discussions and negotiations, and of a correspondence between the three Governments extending over many years. In consequence of the seizure in 1873 of certain German vessels in the waters pf Sulu and of the subsequent detention of a British vessel by a Spanish man-of-war, Her Majesty’s Government caused a careful examination to be made of the various Treaties between Great Britain and Sulu, and between Spain and Sulu, and of the correspondence relating to those Treaties. The conclusion then arrived at by Her Majesty’s Government and communicated by Lord Derby to the German Government in January 1876, was that, whatever rights Spain may have had to the sovereignty of Sulu and its dependencies, those rights must be considered to have lapsed owing to the complete failure of Spain to attain a defacto control over the territory claimed.
Sulu was only occupied and made into a protectorate in 1876 when Gov Gen Malcampo, using naval artillery, succeeded in destroying the kota (fort) of Jolo, and prevented the smuggle of ammunition to the besieged forces. A garrison was set up in Jolo commanded by Capt P. Cervera. Tausug attempts to recover the city were not successful. By a Treaty, dated 22 July 1878, the Sultan of Sulu was made to constitute himself the vassal of Spain, and to recognize Spauish sovereignty over the whole of the Sulu Archipelago and its dependencies, which, according to the Spanish contention, included the territories tributary to the Sultan on the north-east coast of Borneo. The Protocol of Madrid, which secured foreign trade from further molestation in the Sulu Archipelago, does not extend to the mainland of Borneo. The territorial limits of the sovereignty formerly claimed by Spain in the Sulu Archipelago are clearly defined in the Treaty between Spain and Sulu of 1836, wherein they are declared to extend “from the western point of Mindanao’ to Borneo and Palawan, with the exception of Sandakan and the other countries tributary to the Sultan on the continent of Borneo.”
North Borneo lay in the fair way of an immense British maritime trade between China, Australia, India, and the United Kingdom. Its occupation by a foreign Power would be a source of disquietude to this country, and for that reason clauses were inserted iu the British Treaties of 1847 and 1849 with the Sultans of Brunei and Sulu, under which they respectively engaged not to make any cession of territory to any other nation than Great Britain without the consent of Iler Majesty’s Government.
The British, who were wonderfully diplomatic in their dealings with the semi-civilized races, had but little trouble, so far as possessions in Borneo were concerned. They made a special treaty with the Sultan of Sulu, recognizing his feudal ownership of Borneo Territory, and paid him a certain annual stipend in lieu of all other charges. In this way they managed to open up North Borneo to settlement and cultivation, and are now reaping a golden harvest from their skillful negotiations. In January 1877, shortly before the signing of the Protocol of Madrid, the Spanish Foreign Minister declared to Her Majesty’s Kepresentative that his Ministry had no designs on Borneo, and limited the claims of Spanish sovereignty to Sulu and the adjacent islands.
The tenacity with which the Sulus resisted Spanish domination, their obdurate opposition and bravery in battle, and their obstinate passive resistance in peace, baffled all Spanish efforts to subvert their political organization or gain a single point of advantage without paying too dearly for it. The Sulus succeeded at last in inaugurating their candidate as Sultan of Sulu. Their laws and the administration of their internal affairs were not interfered with.
Raja Muda Amirul Kiram, who fought and suffered so long for the throne of his father and brother, succeeded Sultan Harun and assumed the name of Sultan Jamalul Kiram II. He was not obliged to go to Manila in order to be vested with proper authority by the GovernorGeneral, but it seems that he pledged himself in one way or another to pay some tribute to the Spanish Government, and consequently a decree was issued by Governor-General Blanco on March 1. 1894. Spain evacuated Sulu in May, 1899, and Jolo was garrisoned by American troops on the same day. On the 20th of August Gen. J. C. Bates concluded a treaty with Sultan Jamalul Kiram II, generally known as the “Bates Agreement,” and the sovereignty of Sulu passed from Spain to the United States of America.
Until the advent of the Americans, Sultan Jamalul Kiram II had the final word over an area of land larger than Delaware. But his Moros got out of control, and in 1902 General Pershing, then a Colonel, went into the bush and killed three hundred of them. Four years later, Governor Leonard Wood was obliged to shoot down six hundred more of the Sultan’s army. At last the Sultan gave in, allowed the American flag to be hoisted, and promised to behave. To prove he was on the level, he made a trip to the United States in 1912, accompanied by wives, advisers, and $250,000 in pearls.
His Highness Padukka Mahasari Manaluna Hadji Mohammad Jamalul Kiram II, born thirty years before Dewey sailed into Manila Bay and already a legend at the turn of the century. He drove the Spaniards out of the southern Philippines, thumbed his nose at the rest of the world, and lived long enough to find his temporal powers taken from him by the United States and himself immortalized when George Ade wrote a musical comedy called The Sultan of Sulu. Sultan Jamalul Kiram II was one of the most colorful figures ever to sit on a throne. When diplomats and journalists journeyed from Manila to the capital of Jolo the Sultan stuffed his fat body into a gold-buttoned pongee suit, slipped his feet into patent leather shoes, and placed a maroon fez on his head. But that was just on special occasions. His regular dress consisted of a faded khaki shirt, riding breeches, and dirty tennis shoes.
On 15 December 1913, Frank W. Carpenter succeeded General Pershing as Governor of the Moro Province. Sultan Jamal- ul Kiram II signed the March 1915 Carpenter Agreement whereby the sultan recognized the sovereignty of the Unites States in the Sulu Archipelago with “all the attributes of sovereign government that are exercised elsewhere in American territory and dependencies.” The sultan in effect unequivocally abdicated all his powers including his prerogatives associated with the courts and collection of taxes while the United States recognized the sultan as the “titular spiritual head of the Mohammedan church in the Sulu Archipelago,” that the Moros “ shall have the same religious freedom . . . and the practice of which is not in violation of the basic principles of the laws of the United States of America.”
Sultan Jamalul Kiram II died on June 7, 1936 without children but he left a Will naming his brother and two adopted nieces to succeed. When Sultan Jamalul Kiram II died, the Ruma Bechara (council) petitioned the Philippine Commonwealth government to recognize Dayang Dayang Hadji Piandao as Sultana of Sulu since the sultan did not have a direct heir. Datu Jainal Abirin II was accepted by most Moros as the Sultan of Sulu. Following the demise of the latter in 1950.
Read the original text from:
- DM: Should we accept this version of Sulu history, one thing didn’t add up: 

Since the Sulu archipelago was occupied by Gov Gen Malcampo and made into a Spain protectorate in 1876, the reigning Sultan of Sulu would not have the authority to signoff any parts of Borneo (which the Sulus allegedly claimed ownership) to Dent-Overbeck team in 1878.
This again substantiates Sulu Sultanate’s treacherous nature.


JAMALUL Kiram wants to fine Malaysia RM78 billion for charging eight gunmen for waging a war against the Yang DiPertuan Agong — and act which the ‘sultan’ says Malaysia had not right to do because it is merely an occupant of Sabah, the land which “belongs to the Sulu sultanate.”
Meanwhile, it’s been widely reported that Philippine government has lined up a slew of the best lawyers to study the feasibility of claiming Sabah for the Philippines.
The republic is doing this, despite Aquino’s overt support for Malaysia in the Lahad Datu intrusion and attack, to the point that Jamalul Kiram III and Nur Misuari have condemned him for siding with Malaysia and not with his countrymen in Sulu.
But any effort by the Philippines to claim Sabah, even with the most skillful of attorneys (as they are called in the Philippines), would be an exercise in futility because of the overwhelming evidences which have piled up over a century in favour of Sabah and Malaysia.
In the past three installments of this column I have listed quite a few facts of history which would make such a legal suit to claim Sabah pointless and a waste of time for the Philippines.
But there is one point of history favouring Sabah and Malaysia which I hadn’t yet touched on, nor had those arguing from both sides of the issue had shown any awareness of it.
This is the critical question of whether Brunei had actually given North Borneo, or parts of North Borneo, to the Sulu Sultanate. The wellknown version of the North Borneo handover says that the sultan of Brunei gave North Borneo to Sulu as the promised reward to the Sultan of Sulu for helping quash a rebellion in Brunei.
Centuries later, the sultan of Sulu then ceded North Borneo to the British North Borneo Company owned by Alfred Dent and Baron Gustavus Von Overbeck. The ensuing argument is whether the cession was in fact a cession or a lease, and the Philippines claims it is the latter. And this is the principal basis of the Sabah claim which was officially declared by Manila in 1962.
However, none of those making the arguments on the issue has ever asked the important question: What if Brunei had never given North Borneo to Sulu? This little-known ‘tweak’ of history may be very surprising to many, but there appears to be strong veracity in this alternative historical account which assures us that, indeed, such a handover never took place.
To have a perspective of the genesis of this argument, let’s look at what transpired then (as related by Rozan Yunos of Brunei Times). At that time the sultan in power in Brunei was Sultan Muhydin (the 14th sultan who reigned from 1673 to 1690). The 13th sultan, Sultan Abdul Mubin, staged a war against Muhydin.
He usurped the throne after killing Sultan Muhammad Ali when the latter tried to stop Mubin from taking his revenge for the death of his son killed by the son of Sultan Muhammad Ali. Mubin then appointed Muhydin as Bendahara but later Muhydin with other followers created disturbances at the capital, forcing Mubin to flee to Pulau Chermin. This then gave Muhydin the opportunity to appoint himself as Sultan.
Thereafter a war ensued between the two, with Mubin fighting from Pulau Chermin as the rebel and Muhydin fighting from the palace as the sultan. Sir Hugh Low (the first man to climb Mount Kinabalu) had written to describe the negotiation between Sulu and Brunei during the war: “…the Bataraa of Soolok went up to Bruni and met the Sultan Muaddin and having feasted and drank, the Sultan asked the Batara for his assistance to destroy the enemies at the island, promising that if the island should be conquered, the land from the North as far as westward as Kimani should belong to Soolook”.
Eventually Muhydin triumphed, supposedly due to the assistance provided by soldiers sent by the Sultan of Sulu. The popular story goes that thereafter Muhydin gave North Borneo to Sulu in gratitude for the assistance, as promised. Sir Hugh Low, wrote in the Journal of the Straits Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society (JSBRAS) published on June 5, 1880 under the title ‘Selesilah (Book of Descent) of the Rajas of Bruni’, that “by the assistance of a force from the Sultan of Soolok, the forts on the island (Pulau Cermin) were captured.”
In support of this version of the events HR Hughes-Hallett wrote in the Journal of the Malayan Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society published in August 1940 entitled “A Sketch of the History of Brunei” thus: “…by the beginning of the 18th century, the kingdom (Brunei) had been territorially diminished by the cession to the Sultan of Sulu in the north.”
However, it is very interesting that Pehin Jamil Umar, writing in his book, Tarsilah Brunei II: Period of Splendour and Fame (2007), denies this account. He doesn’t deny the fact that the Sulus were invited and promised the northern Brunei territory by Sultan Muhydin if they helped him win the civil war against Sultan Abdul Mubin.
What he denies is that the Sulu actually helped Sultan Muhydin in the civil war. Pehin Jamil assures that during the battle for Pulau Cermin, the Sulu forces were supposed to attack the island from Pulau Keingaran and from the sea, but they didn’t do so.
Against all the tales of heroic fighting exploits of Sulu warriors, they were terrified by the resistance of Sultan Abdul Mubin’s forces in Pulau Cermin! It was only after Sultan Muhydin had won the battle that the Sulu forces found their wits and courage, went up the island and took the opportunity to take a number of war booties!
Because of this failure of the part of the Sulu soldiers, according to Pehin Jamil, Sultan Muhydin refused to cede the territories promised to Sulu. Pehin Jamil notes that the area was only “claimed” and not “ceded”! Sir Stamford Raffles, writing in his book History of Java (1830), supports this, referring to a claim and not a cession, thus: “on the north-east of Borneo proper (Brunei) lies a very considerable territory (North Borneo), the sovereignty of which has long been claimed by Sulu Government”.
Pehin Jamil goes on to write that according to the oral tradition of Brunei, Sulu continued to press their claim. In 1775, (about a century after the civil war), one of the Sulu chiefs went to Brunei in the pretense of looking for fresh water. His group was actually seeking an audience with the then ruler, Sultan Omar Ali Saifuddin I, to pursue their claim on North Borneo.
The Sultan, however, ordered one of his chief wazirs to deal with them, and threatened that if they persisted on their intention, he would have them killed. The Sulus left immediately but thereafter continued to maintain their claim.
This argument (that Brunei never ceded Sabah to Sulu) is supported by LR Wright in her book The Origins of British Borneo (1970), in which she writes: “…indeed, the legitimacy of the Sulu claim to the territory (North Borneo) is in considerable doubt partly because of the unreliability of tarsilas such as ‘Selesilah’, which in many cases are nothing more than written-down legends to enhance the status of the royal house which produced them.”
Such ‘legends’ are still being created in Sulu and Manila. It is also known that succeeding sultans of Brunei had denied the supposed cession of North Borneo. While Sulu kept pressing with the claim the weight of Brunei tradition denies it.
The current Sulu claim on Sabah is currently resting on the treaty signed by Sultan Jamalul Alam (Azam) of Sulu and British North Borneo Company. But there is a very pertinent question regarding this treaty, which is: If North Borneo was never given to Sulu, and there is no shred of evidence that it ever was, and neither is there any document to prove it, then isn’t that treaty invalid and a product of fraud on the part of Jamalul Alam? If so the on-going claim is a huge world-shaking lie based on this fraudulent transaction.
We also need to ask: If North Borneo belonged to Sulu since the 17th century why then did Sultan Abdul Momin of Brunei appoint Baron de Overbeck as the Maharaja Sabah, Rajah Gaya and Sandakan by way of a document signed on 29th December 1877, just one year before the Jamalul Alam-Overbeck/Dent treaty?
If Sabah was given to Overbeck by Brunei before it was given by Jamalul Alam, then Jamalul Alam had given away something which didn’t belong to him in the first place, or given away something which someone else had given away earlier! But why did Overbeck, as the Rajah of Sabah, bring Dent to Sulu to sign the treaty to ask for something he already owned?
This can perhaps be explained as a clever strategy to prevent any trouble from Sulu in the form of attacks or intrusion into Sabah (over which Overbeck held jurisdiction), knowing that Sulu had been claiming Sabah since the end of the Brunei civil war. If that was the motive, then Jamalul Alam was conned big time into not creating trouble for the sake of 5,000 dollars per year.
But whatever the motive was on the 1878 treaty, it is very obviously that in 1877 — centuries after the Brunei civil war — the Brunei Sultanate then still believed and maintained that the North Borneo territory was under its control! This therefore proceeds to the great and ultimate implication that the present Sabah claim is totally unfounded, a daring and shameless lie, hence not even worth arguing over, simply because of the high possibility that Sabah never belonged to Sulu!


Ini foto AL_AQSA [yg sebenarnya bukan bohongan atau hasil rekaan] di Jerusalem, 
Subhanallah ...... Foto ini dapat dibolosi kerana tidak diketahui oleh pihak Israel laknatullah yg menjaga tempatnya dengan sangat ketat. Bukti kebesaran Allah SWT batu tempat duduk Nabi Muhammad SAW Isra Mi'raj sampai kini masih tetap terapung di udara. Pada saat Nabi Muhammad mau Mi'raj batu tersebut ikut, tetapi Na
bi SAW menghentakkan kakinya pada batu tersebut, maksudnya agar batu tersebut tak ikut. Kisah Isra Mi'raj Nabi Muhammad SAW tentang batu gantung tersebut yang berada dalam masjid Umar [Dome of the Rock] di Lingkungan Masjidil AQSA di Yerusalem.

Sampai sekarang masjid dome of rock ditutup untuk umum, dan Yahudi membuat masjid lain Al Sakhra tak jauh disebelahnya dengan kubah "emas" (yg sering terlihat di poster2 yg disebarkan ke seluruh dunia dimana2) dan disebut sebagai Al Aqsa, untuk mengelabui ummat Islam dimana masjid al Aqsa yang sebenarnya, yang Nabi Muhammad SAW pernah sebutkan Al Aqsa sebagai "masjid kubah biru".

Saat ini masjid Al Aqsa yg sebenarnya sudah diambil alih oleh Israel dan merancang untuk dihancurkan untuk diganti sebagai tempat ibadah mereka kerana bersebelahan dengan tembok ratapan.

Subhanallahh .... bagus untuk di baca .....

* Ali bin Abi Talib r.a berkata:

"Sewaktu Rasullullah SAW duduk bersama para sahabat Muhajirin dan Ansar, maka dengan tiba-tiba datanglah satu rombongan orang-orang Yahudi, lalu berkata: 'Wahai Muhammad, kami hendak tanya kepada kamu kalimat-kalimat yang telah diberikan oleh Allah kepada Nabi Musa AS yang tidak diberikan kecuali kepada para Nabi utusan Allah atau malaikat muqarrab. 'Lalu Rasullullah SAW bersabda:

"Silakan bertanya. 'Berkata orang Yahudi:' Sila terangkan kepada kami tentang 5 waktu yang diwajibkan oleh Allah ke atas umatmu."

Sabda Rasullullah S.A.W. : "Solat Zuhur jika tergelincir matahari, maka bertasbihlah segala sesuatu kepada TuhanNya, Solat Asar itu ialah saat ketika Nabi Adam AS memakan buah Khuldi, Sholat Maghrib itu adalah saat Allah menerima taubat Nabi Adam AS , Maka setiap mukmin yang solat Maghrib dengan ikhlas kemudian dia berdoa meminta sesuatu pada Allah maka pasti Allah akan mengkabulkan permintaannya. "

Solat Isya 'itu ialah sembahyang yang dikerjakan oleh para Rasul-Rasul sebelumku, Sembahyang Subuh adalah sebelum terbit matahari, ini kerana apabila matahari terbit, terbitnya di antara dua tanduk syaitan dan disitu sujudnya tiap orang kafir.

Setelah orang Yahudi mendengar penjelasan dari Rasullullah SAW maka mereka berkata: 'Memang benar apa yang kamu katakan itu Muhammad, katakanlah kepada kami apakah pahala yang akan di dapati oleh orang yang solat.'

Rasullullah SAW bersabda: "Jagalah waktu-waktu sembahyang terutama sembahyang yang pertengahan, Solat Zuhur, pada saat itu nyalanya neraka Jahanam, orang mukmin yang mengerjakan sembahyang pada ketika itu akan diharamkan keatasnya wap api neraka Jahanam pada hari Kiamat."

Sabda Rasullullah S.A.W. lagi: "Manakala solat Asar, adalah saat di mana Nabi Adam AS Memakan buah Khuldi. Orang mukmin yang mengerjakan solat Asar akan diampunkan dosanya seperti bayi yang baru lahir. "

Setelah itu Rasullullah S.A.W. membaca ayat yang bermaksud: "Jagalah waktu-waktu sembahyang terutama sekali sembahyang yang pertengahan, solat Maghrib itu adalah saat di mana taubat Nabi Adam AS diterima. Seorang mukmin yang ikhlas mengerjakan sembahyang Maghrib kemudian meminta sesuatu dari Allah maka Allah akan perkenankan.

'Sabda Rasullullah S.A.W. : "Solat Isya '(atamah). Katakan kubur itu adalah sangat gelap dan begitu juga pada hari Kiamat, maka seorang mukmin yang berjalan dalam malam yang gelap untuk pergi menunaikan solat Isya 'berjamaah, Allah SWT haramkan dari terkena nyalanya api neraka dan diberinya cahaya untuk menyeberangi titian sirath. "

Sabda Rasullullah S.A.W. seterusnya: "Sembahyang Subuh pula, seorang mukmin yang mengerjakan solat Subuh selama 40 hari secara berjemaah, diberi oleh Allah SWT dua kebebasan iaitu:

1. Dibebaskan dari api neraka.

2. Dibebaskan dari nifaq.

Setelah orang Yahudi mendengar penjelasan dari Rasullullah SAW maka mereka berkata: 'Memang benarlah apa yang kamu katakan itu wahai Muhammad (SAW). Kini katakan pula kepada kami semua kenapakah Allah SWT mewajibkan puasa 30 hari ke atas umatmu? '

Sabda Rasullullah S.A.W. : "Ketika Nabi Adam memakan buah pohon yang dilarang, lalu makanan itu tersangkut dalam perut Nabi Adam AS selama 30 hari. Kemudian Allah S.W.T. mewajibkan ke atas keturunan Adam A.Ş. berlapar selama 30 hari. Sementara izin makan di waktu malam itu adalah sebagai kurnia Allah SWT kepada makhlukNya. "

Kata orang Yahudi: 'Wahai Muhammad, memang benarlah apa yang kamu katakan itu. Kini terangkan kepada kami ganjaran pahala yang diperolehi dari puasa itu '.

Sabda Rasullullah S.A.W. : "Seorang hamba yang berpuasa dalam bulan Ramadhan dengan ikhlas kepada Allah SWT dia akan diberi oleh Allah S.W.T. tujuh perkara:

1. Akan dicairkan daging haram yg tumbuh dari badannya (daging yang tumbuh dengan makanan yang haram).

2. Rahmat Allah senantiasa dekat dengannya.

3. Diberi oleh Allah sebaik-baik amal.

4. Dijauhkan dari merasa lapar dan haus.

5. Diringankan baginya siksa kubur (siksa yang sangat mengerikan).

6. Diberikan cahaya oleh Allah S.W.T. pada hari Kiamat untuk menyeberang titian sirath.

7. Allah S.W.T. akan memberinya kemudian di syurga.

Kata orang Yahudi: 'Benar apa yang kamu katakan itu Muhammad. Katakan kepada kami kelebihanmu antara semua para nabi-nabi '.

Sabda Rasullullah S.A.W. : "Seorang nabi mengunakan doa mustajabnya untuk membinasakan umatnya, tetapi saya tetap menyimpankan doa saya (untuk saya gunakan memberi syafaat pada umat saya di hari kiamat) '.

Kata orang Yahudi: 'Benar apa yang kamu katakan itu Muhammad, kini kami mengakui dengan ucapan Asyhadu Alla illaha illallah, wa asyhadu anna Muhammada Rasulullah (kami percaya bahawa tiada Tuhan kecuali Allah dan engkau utusan Allah)'. "Dan sesungguhnya akan Kami berikan cobaan kepadamu, dengan sedikit ketakutan, kelaparan, kekurangan harta, jiwa dan buah2an. Dan berilah berita gembira kepada orang2 yang sabar. "(Al-Baqarah: 155)

Disebutkan di dalam satu riwayat, bahawasanya apabila para makhluk dibangkitkan dari kubur, mereka semuanya berdiri tegak di kubur masing masing selama 44 tahun UMUR AKHIRAT dalam keadaan TIDAK MAKAN dan TIDAK MINUM, TIDAK DUDUK dan TIDAK BERCAKAP.

Bertanya orang kepada Rasulullah S.A.W. : "Bagaimana kita dapat mengenali ORANG-ORANG MUKMIN kelak di hari qiamat? "Maka jawabnya Rasulullah SAW," Umat dikenal kerana WAJAH mereka putih disebabkan oleh WUDHU ".

Bila qiamat datang maka malaikat datang ke kubur orang mukmin sambil membersihkan debu di badan mereka KECUALI pada tempat sujud. Bekas SUJUD tidak dihilangkan. Maka memanggillah dari zat yang memanggil.

Bukanlah debu itu dari debu kubur mereka, akan tetapi debu itu ialah debu KEIMANAN mereka. Oleh itu tinggallah debu itu sehingga mereka melalui titian Siratul Mustaqim dan memasuki alam syurga, sehingga setiap orang melihat para mukmin itu mengetahui bahawa mereka adalah pelayan Ku dan hamba-hambaKu.

Disebutkan oleh hadith Rasulullah saw bahawa sepuluh orang yang mayatnya TIDAK BUSUK dan TIDAK REPUT dan akan bangkit dalam tubuh asal diwaktu mati:

1. Para Nabi

2. Para Ahli Jihad

3. Para Alim Ulama

4. Para Syuhada

5. Para Penghafal Al Quran

6. Imam atau Pemimpin yang Adil

7. Tukang Azan

8. Wanita yang mati kelahiran / beranak

9. Orang mati dibunuh atau dianiaya

10. Orang yang mati di siang hari atau di malam Jumaat jika mereka itu dari kalangan orang yang beriman.

Di dalam satu riwayat yang lain dari Jabir bin Abdullah ra sabda Rasulullah SAW : Apabila datang hari qiamat dan orang orang yang berada di dalam kubur dibangkitkan maka Allah SWT memberi wahyu kepada Malaikat Ridhwan:

Wahai Ridhwan, sesungguhnya Aku telah mengeluarkan hamba-hamba Ku berpuasa (ahli puasa) dari kubur mereka di dalam keadaan letih dan dahaga. Maka ambillah dan berikan mereka segala makanan yang digoreng dan buah buahan syurga.

Maka Malaikat Ridhwan menyeru, wahai sekalian kawan-kawan dan semua anak-anak yang belum baligh, lalu mereka semua datang dengan membawa dulang dari nur dan berhimpun dekat Malaikat Ridhwan bersama dulang yang penuh dengan buahan dan minuman yang lazat dari syurga dengan sangat banyak melebihi daun -daun kayu di bumi.

Tolong sebarkan kisah ini kepada saudara Islam yang lain. Ilmu yang bermanfaat ialah salah satu amal yang berkekalan bagi orang yang mengajarnya meskipun dia sudah mati. "Dan (ingatlah) Allah senantiasa mengetahui dengan mendalam akan apa jua yang kamu lakukan." (Surah Al-Baqarah: 237) *


1. Bulan Muharram ialah bulan pertama dalam kalendar hijriah.

2. Bulan Muharram adalah salah satu dari pada bulan-bulan Haram.

Allah berfirman, ”Sesungguhnya bilangan bulan pada sisi Allah adalah dua belas bulan, dalam ketetapan Allah di waktu Dia menciptakan langit dan bumi, di antaranya empat bulan haram. Itulah agama yang lurus, maka janganlah kamu menganiaya diri kamu dalam bulan yang empat itu, dan perangilah kaum musyrikin itu semuanya sebagaimana mereka pun memerangi kamu semuanya, dan ketahuilah bahwasanya Allah beserta orang-orang yang bertakwa.” (At-Taubah: 36)

Nabi saw. bersabda, “Satu tahun itu ada dua belas bulan. Di antaranya ada empat bulan suci. Tiga bulan berturut-turut iaitu Zulkaedah, Zulhijjah dan Muharram. Dan satu bulan lagi adalah Rejab yang terletak antara Jamadil Akhir dan Sya’ban.” (HR Muslim no. 1679)

Bulan Haram yang dihormati itu ialah: Zulkaedah, Zulhijjah, Muharam dan Rejab.

Umat Islam dilarang berperang dan berbunuhan dalam bulan-bulan ini kecuali jika mereka diugut.

Larangan untuk melakukan maksiat adalah lebih keras dibanding bulan-bulan lain.

Abdullah Ibnu Abbas ra. mengatakan maksiat yang dilakukan di bulan haram adalah lebih besar dosanya dan amal baik yang dilakukan di bulan haram adalah lebih besar pahalanya. (Tafsir At-Thabari)

Al Allamah Ibnu Hajar menulis, telah meriwayatkan oleh Abi Daud bahawa Nabi (صلى الله عليه وسلم) memandubkan (yakni SUNAT) berpuasa di BULAN-BULAN HARAM .

Dari Abu Hurairah r.a. katanya Rasulullah s.a.w. bersabda, "Puasa yang paling utama sesudah puasa bulan Ramadan ialah puasa di bulan Muharram". (HR Muslim no. 1163)


Disunnahkan mempernyak puasa pada bulan Muharram;
Rasulullah –Shallallaahu ‘Alaihi Wa ‘Ala Alihi Wa Sallam bersabda:
“Puasa yang paling afdhal setelah Ramadhan adalah bulan Allah Muharram.”
Terutama puasa tanggal 9 (Tasu'a) dan 10 ('Asyura) Muharram, minimal tanggal 10 saja;

“Puasa hari ‘Asyura (10 Muharram), aku berharap kepada Allah agar menghapus dosa setahun yang lalu.”

Disunnahkan juga puasa Tasu’a (9 Muharram).

Tahun ini 2011, Insya Allah bertepatan hari SENIN dn SELASA 5 & 6 Desember 2011.

Semoga Allah Memudahkan..

Hadis-Hadis Seputar Puasa ‘Asyura:

1. Dari Abu Qatadah Radhiyallahu ‘Anhu, Rasulullah Shallallahu ‘Alaihi Wa ‘Ala Alihi Wa Sallam, bersabda :
“ Aku berharap pada Allah dengan puasa ‘Asyura ini dapat menghapus dosa selama setahun sebelumnya.”
(H.R. Bukhari dan Muslim)

2. Ibnu Abbas Radhiyallahu ‘Anhuma berkata :
“Aku tidak pernah melihat Rasulullah Shallallahu ‘Alaihi Wa ‘Ala Alihi Wa Sallam , berupaya keras untuk puasa pada suatu hari melebihi yang lainnya kecuali pada hari ini, yaitu hari ‘Asyura dan bulan Ramadhan.”
(H.R. Bukhari dan Muslim)

3. Ibnu Abbas Radhiyallahu ‘Anhuma berkata :
Ketika Rasulullah Shallallahu ‘Alaihi Wa ‘Ala Alihi Wa Sallam tiba di Madinah, beliau melihat orang-orang Yahudi berpuasa pada hari‚ Asyura, maka Beliau bertanya : “Hari apa ini?. Mereka menjawab :“ini adalah hari istimewa, karena pada hari ini Allah menyelamatkan Bani Israil dari musuhnya, Karena itu Nabi Musa berpuasa pada hari ini. Rasulullah pun bersabda:
“Aku lebih berhak atas Musa daripada kalian“
Maka beliau berpuasa dan memerintahkan shahabatnya untuk berpuasa.
(H.R. Bukhari dan Muslim)

4. Dalam riwayat lain, Ibnu Abbas Radhiyallahu ‘Anhuma berkata :
Rasulullah Shallallahu ‘Alaihi Wa ‘Ala Alihi Wa Sallam bersabda :
“Jika tahun depan kita bertemu dengan bulan Muharram, kita akan berpuasa pada hari kesembilan (tanggal sembilan).“
(H.R. Bukhari dan Muslim)

5. Imam Ahmad dalam Musnadnya membawakan tambahan:
“Hari ‘Asyura adalah hari ketika perahu Nabi Nuh berlabuh di bukit Judiy, lalu Nabi Nuh berpuasa sebagai bentuk syukur.”

Bagaimana Berpuasa ‘Asyura ?

Ibnu Qoyyim rahimahullah dalam kitab Zaadul Ma’aad –berdasarkan riwayat-riwayat yang ada- menjelaskan :

- Urutan pertama, dan ini yang paling sempurna adalah puasa tiga hari, yaitu puasa tanggal sepuluh ditambah sehari sebelum dan sesudahnya (tgl 9, 10 & 11).

- Urutan kedua, puasa tanggal 9 dan 10. Inilah yang disebutkan dalam banyak hadits.

- Urutan ketiga, puasa tanggal 10 saja.

Puasa sebanyak tiga hari (9, 10,dan 11) dikuatkan para para ulama dengan dua alasan sebagai berikut :

1. Sebagai kehati-hatian, yaitu kemungkinan penetapan awal bulannya tidak tepat.

2. Dimasukkan dalam puasa tiga hari setiap bulan.

Semoga Bermanfaat..


Rasulullah s.a.w. pernah menyatakan salah seorang sahabat Ansar adalah ahli Syurga, maka Abdullah bin 'Amr r.a. ingin mengetahui apakah amalannya hingga dia telah terpilih menjadi ahli Syurga.

Abdullah bin 'Amr r.a. telah meminta izin ingin menjadi tetamu selama tiga hari dirumah lelaki tersebut untuk melihat amalan-amalannya. Dalam masa tiga hari beliau tidak nampak amalan-amalannya yang istimewa. Apabila Abdullah bin Amr hendak pulang lelaki tersebut pun berkata : "Engkau telah melihat amalanku, tetapi ada satu sebagai tambahan, aku tidak mempunyai perasaan buruk dalam hatiku tentang seorang Muslim. Aku tidak irihati jika Allah menganugerahkan kepada orang lain suatu nikmat istimewa.

Abdullah berkata : "Inilah amalan yang telah menaikkanmu kepada kedudukan itu, dan inilah suatu amalan yang tidak dapat kami lakukan." (Hadis Riwayat Ahmad, Bazzar dan Mujma' uz Zawaid)